From: Subject: Biology/Life Sciences - Grades Nine Through Twelve - Content Standards (CA Dept of Education) Date: Mon, 7 May 2007 21:29:04 -0700 MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; type="text/html"; boundary="----=_NextPart_000_0000_01C790EE.BC5F0AF0" X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V6.00.2900.3028 This is a multi-part message in MIME format. ------=_NextPart_000_0000_01C790EE.BC5F0AF0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="iso-8859-1" Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Location: http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/scbiology.asp Biology/Life Sciences - Grades Nine Through Twelve - = Content Standards (CA Dept of Education)
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Biology/Life Sciences - Grades Nine Through = Twelve

Science=20 Content Standards.
3D""=20
   

Standards that all students are expected to achieve in = the=20 course of their studies are unmarked.
Standards that all = students=20 should have the opportunity to learn are marked with an = asterisk=20 (*).

Cell Biology

  1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals = depend on=20 a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized = areas of=20 the organism's cells. As a basis for understanding this = concept:=20
    1. Students know cells are enclosed within=20 semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction = with=20 their surroundings.=20
    2. Students know enzymes are proteins that = catalyze=20 biochemical reactions without altering the reaction = equilibrium=20 and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, = ionic=20 conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.=20
    3. Students know how prokaryotic cells, = eukaryotic=20 cells (including those from plants and animals), and = viruses=20 differ in complexity and general structure.=20
    4. Students know the central dogma of = molecular=20 biology outlines the flow of information from = transcription of=20 ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of = proteins=20 on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.=20
    5. Students know the role of the endoplasmic = reticulum=20 and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.=20
    6. Students know usable energy is captured = from=20 sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the = synthesis of=20 sugar from carbon dioxide.=20
    7. Students know the role of the mitochondria = in=20 making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by = completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.=20
    8. Students know most macromolecules = (polysaccharides,=20 nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms = are=20 synthesized from a small collection of simple = precursors.=20
    9. * Students know how chemiosmotic gradients = in the=20 mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP = production.=20
    10. * Students know how eukaryotic cells are = given=20 shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or = cell wall=20 or both.

Genetics

  1. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic = variation in=20 a population. As a basis for understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know meiosis is an early step in = sexual=20 reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate = and=20 segregate randomly during cell division to produce = gametes=20 containing one chromosome of each type.=20
    2. Students know only certain cells in a = multicellular=20 organism undergo meiosis.=20
    3. Students know how random chromosome = segregation=20 explains the probability that a particular allele will = be in a=20 gamete.=20
    4. Students know new combinations of alleles = may be=20 generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and = female=20 gametes (fertilization).=20
    5. Students know why approximately half of an=20 individual's DNA sequence comes from each parent.=20
    6. Students know the role of chromosomes in=20 determining an individual's sex.=20
    7. Students know how to predict possible = combinations=20 of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the = parents.=20
  1. A multicellular organism develops from a single = zygote, and=20 its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is = established at=20 fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know how to predict the probable = outcome=20 of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of = the=20 parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, = dominant=20 or recessive).=20
    2. Students know the genetic basis for = Mendel's laws=20 of segregation and independent assortment.=20
    3. * Students know how to predict the probable = mode of=20 inheritance from a pedigree diagram showing phenotypes.=20
    4. * Students know how to use data on = frequency of=20 recombination at meiosis to estimate genetic distances = between=20 loci and to interpret genetic maps of chromosomes.=20
  1. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA = sequence of=20 each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in = proteins=20 characteristic of that organism. As a basis for = understanding this=20 concept:=20
    1. Students know the general pathway by which=20 ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate = genetic=20 information in mRNA.=20
    2. Students know how to apply the genetic = coding rules=20 to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence = of codons=20 in RNA.=20
    3. Students know how mutations in the DNA = sequence of=20 a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene = or the=20 sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.=20
    4. Students know specialization of cells in=20 multicellular organisms is usually due to different = patterns of=20 gene expression rather than to differences of the genes=20 themselves.=20
    5. Students know proteins can differ from one = another=20 in the number and sequence of amino acids.=20
    6. * Students know why proteins having = different amino=20 acid sequences typically have different shapes and = chemical=20 properties.
  1. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by=20 incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis = for=20 understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know the general structures and = functions=20 of DNA, RNA, and protein.=20
    2. Students know how to apply base-pairing = rules to=20 explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative=20 replication and transcription of information from DNA = into mRNA.=20
    3. Students know how genetic engineering=20 (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and=20 agricultural products.=20
    4. * Students know how basic DNA technology=20 (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel = electrophoresis,=20 ligation, and transformation) is used to construct = recombinant=20 DNA molecules.=20
    5. * Students know how exogenous DNA can be = inserted=20 into bacterial cells to alter their genetic makeup and = support=20 expression of new protein products.

Ecology

  1. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between = competing=20 effects. As a basis for understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know biodiversity is the sum total = of=20 different kinds of organisms and is affected by = alterations of=20 habitats.=20
    2. Students know how to analyze changes in an=20 ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human = activity,=20 introduction of nonnative species, or changes in = population=20 size.=20
    3. Students know how fluctuations in = population size=20 in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of = birth,=20 immigration, emigration, and death.=20
    4. Students know how water, carbon, and = nitrogen cycle=20 between abiotic resources and organic matter in the = ecosystem=20 and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and = respiration.=20
    5. Students know a vital part of an ecosystem = is the=20 stability of its producers and decomposers.=20
    6. Students know at each link in a food web = some=20 energy is stored in newly made structures but much = energy is=20 dissipated into the environment as heat. This = dissipation may be=20 represented in an energy pyramid.=20
    7. * Students know how to distinguish between = the=20 accommodation of an individual organism to its = environment and=20 the gradual adaptation of a lineage of organisms through = genetic=20 change.

Evolution

  1. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a = population=20 depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over = time.=20 As a basis for understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know why natural selection acts on = the=20 phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.=20
    2. Students know why alleles that are lethal = in a=20 homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote = and thus=20 maintained in a gene pool.=20
    3. Students know new mutations are constantly = being=20 generated in a gene pool.=20
    4. Students know variation within a species = increases=20 the likelihood that at least some members of a species = will=20 survive under changed environmental conditions.=20
    5. * Students know the conditions for = Hardy-Weinberg=20 equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are = not=20 likely to appear in nature.=20
    6. * Students know how to solve the = Hardy-Weinberg=20 equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a = population,=20 given the frequency of phenotypes.
  1. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur = in=20 constantly changing environments. As a basis for = understanding=20 this concept:=20
    1. Students know how natural selection = determines the=20 differential survival of groups of organisms.=20
    2. Students know a great diversity of species=20 increases the chance that at least some organisms = survive major=20 changes in the environment.=20
    3. Students know the effects of genetic drift = on the=20 diversity of organisms in a population.=20
    4. Students know reproductive or geographic = isolation=20 affects speciation.=20
    5. Students know how to analyze fossil = evidence with=20 regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and = mass=20 extinction.=20
    6. * Students know how to use comparative = embryology,=20 DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other = independent=20 sources of data to create a branching diagram = (cladogram) that=20 shows probable evolutionary relationships.=20
    7. * Students know how several independent = molecular=20 clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with = evidence=20 from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long = ago=20 various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from = one=20 another.

Physiology

  1. As a result of the coordinated structures and = functions of=20 organ systems, the internal environment of the human body = remains=20 relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the = outside=20 environment. As a basis for understanding this concept:=20
    1. Students know how the complementary = activity of=20 major body systems provides cells with oxygen and = nutrients and=20 removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.=20
    2. Students know how the nervous system = mediates=20 communication between different parts of the body and = the body's=20 interactions with the environment.=20
    3. Students know how feedback loops in the = nervous and=20 endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.=20
    4. Students know the functions of the nervous = system=20 and the role of neurons in transmitting electrochemical=20 impulses.=20
    5. Students know the roles of sensory neurons, = interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought, = and=20 response.=20
    6. * Students know the individual functions = and sites=20 of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases,=20 nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts.=20
    7. * Students know the homeostatic role of the = kidneys=20 in the removal of nitrogenous wastes and the role of the = liver=20 in blood detoxification and glucose balance.=20
    8. * Students know the cellular and molecular = basis of=20 muscle contraction, including the roles of actin, = myosin,=20 Ca+2 , and ATP.=20
    9. * Students know how hormones (including = digestive,=20 reproductive, osmoregulatory) provide internal feedback=20 mechanisms for homeostasis at the cellular level and in = whole=20 organisms.
  1. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat = disease. As a=20 basis for under-standing the human immune response:=20
    1. Students know the role of the skin in = providing=20 nonspecific defenses against infection.=20
    2. Students know the role of antibodies in the = body's=20 response to infection.=20
    3. Students know how vaccination protects an=20 individual from infectious diseases.=20
    4. Students know there are important = differences=20 between bacteria and viruses with respect to their = requirements=20 for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses = against=20 bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments = of=20 these infections.=20
    5. Students know why an individual with a = compromised=20 immune system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be = unable to=20 fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that = are=20 usually benign.=20
    6. * Students know the roles of phagocytes,=20 B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in the immune system.=20
       
Questions: State Board of=20 Education | = 916-319-0693   =
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California=20 State Board of Education
1430 N Street, Suite=20 #5111
Sacramento, CA 95814

Contact CDE =  | =20 FAQ =  |  Web=20 Policy

Last Modified: Friday, July = 21,=20 2006
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