7th grade Green book Pgs 12 - 18 notes and vocabulary


1. Scientific Methods - are the ways in which scientists follow steps to answer questions and solve problems.


2. Difficult questions may become testable hypothesis.


3. Observations must be measured and recorded to be of use to scientists.


4. Scientists use tools to measure, like ruler - length,

thermometer-temperature, protractor-angles.


5. Hypothesis - is a possible explanation or answer to a question. It is a testable idea or explanation that leads to a scientific investigation.


6. The deformities in frogs could be caused by chemical pollutants, parasites, or UV ultraviolet light.


7. These 3 causes of deformities can be the variable parameters in an experiment.


8. Predictions are If, then statements that can be tested for cause and effect. Ex. If the UV light causes deformities, then exposure to more UV light will cause more deformities.


9. If the tests results don't match your predictions then you may have to reform your hypothesis.


10. Controlled experiment - an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by comparing a control group to an experimental group.


11. variable - a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis. Ex. the variable can be the length of time that the frog egg is exposed to UV light.


12. All other factors such as temperature of the water are kept constant in the control group of eggs.


13. control = 0 days exposure to UV light

experiment 1 = 15 days UV light (variant 1)

experiment 2 = 24 days UV light (variant 2)


14. Data = measurements or counts collected from the experiment and compared to the control.


15. The data can be graphed and showed as results.


16. Analyze the data in the results graph to make your conclusion. (24 days of UV exposure showed 47 frogs with deformities)


17. Conclusion: The UV light experiment supports the hypothesis that the deformities in frogs can be caused by exposure to UV light.


18. Communicate the results so that other scientists can repeat the experiment to obtain the same results if necessary to prove or reinforce the hypothesis. This may lead to a theory or even a new law of science.